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Role of routine suppressive antibiotic therapy after DAIR for acute periprosthetic joint infections

Background Debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and implant retention (DAIR) is the first-line management strategy for acute periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Suppressive antibiotic therapy (SAT) after DAIR is proposed to improve outcomes, yet its efficacy remains under scrutiny. Methods We conducted a multicenter retrospective study in patients with acute PJI of the hip or knee and treated with DAIR in centers from Europe and the USA. We analyzed the effect of SAT using a Cox model landmarked at 12 weeks. The primary covariate of interest was SAT, which was analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Patients who experienced treatment failure or lost to follow-up within 12 weeks were excluded from the analysis. Results The study included 510 patients with 66 treatment failures with a median follow-up of 801 days. We did not find a statistically significant association between SAT and treatment failure (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.39, p=0.27). Subgroup analyses for joint, country cohort, and type of infection (early or late acute) did not show benefit for SAT. Secondary analysis of country cohorts showed a trend toward benefit for the USA cohort (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.11-1.15, p=0.09) which also had the highest risk of treatment failure. Conclusion The utility of routine SAT as a strategy for enhancing DAIR's success in acute PJI remains uncertain. Our results suggest that SAT's benefits might be restricted to specific groups of patients, underscoring the need for randomized controlled trials. Identifying patients most likely to benefit from SAT should be a priority in future studies.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Tai DBG, Tande AJ, Langworthy B, et al. Role of routine suppressive antibiotic therapy after DAIR for acute periprosthetic joint infections. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. Published online April 17, 2024:ofae216.