Orthopedic Infectious Diseases Online Library


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  • Abstract. The data on long-term antibiotic use following debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) for treatment of periprosthetic joint infections are limited. In this single-center retrospective study, we show that patients with eventual cessation of antibiotic suppression after DAIR had similar outcomes to those who remained on chronic antibiotic suppression.

  • Background Debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and implant retention (DAIR) is the first-line management strategy for acute periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Suppressive antibiotic therapy (SAT) after DAIR is proposed to improve outcomes, yet its efficacy remains under scrutiny. Methods We conducted a multicenter retrospective study in patients with acute PJI of the hip or knee and treated with DAIR in centers from Europe and the USA. We analyzed the effect of SAT using a Cox model landmarked at 12 weeks. The primary covariate of interest was SAT, which was analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Patients who experienced treatment failure or lost to follow-up within 12 weeks were excluded from the analysis. Results The study included 510 patients with 66 treatment failures with a median follow-up of 801 days. We did not find a statistically significant association between SAT and treatment failure (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.39, p=0.27). Subgroup analyses for joint, country cohort, and type of infection (early or late acute) did not show benefit for SAT. Secondary analysis of country cohorts showed a trend toward benefit for the USA cohort (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.11-1.15, p=0.09) which also had the highest risk of treatment failure. Conclusion The utility of routine SAT as a strategy for enhancing DAIR's success in acute PJI remains uncertain. Our results suggest that SAT's benefits might be restricted to specific groups of patients, underscoring the need for randomized controlled trials. Identifying patients most likely to benefit from SAT should be a priority in future studies.

  • Background Native joint septic arthritis (NJSA) is definitively diagnosed by a positive Gram stain or culture, along with supportive clinical findings. Preoperative antibiotics are known to alter synovial fluid cell count, Gram stain and culture results and are typically postponed until after arthrocentesis to optimize diagnostic accuracy. However, data on the impact of preoperative antibiotics on operative culture yield for NJSA diagnosis are limited. Methods We retrospectively reviewed adult cases of NJSA who underwent surgery at Mayo Clinic facilities from 2012-2021 to analyze the effect of preoperative antibiotics on operative culture yield through a paired analysis of preoperative culture (POC) and operative culture (OC) results using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations. Results Two hundred ninety-nine patients with NJSA affecting 321 joints were included. Among those receiving preoperative antibiotics, yield significantly decreased from 68.0% at POC to 57.1% at OC (p < .001). In contrast, for patients without preoperative antibiotics there was a non-significant increase in yield from 60.9% at POC to 67.4% at OC (p = 0.244). In a logistic regression model for paired data, preoperative antibiotic exposure was more likely to decrease OC yield compared to non-exposure (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.24-3.64; p = .006). Within the preoperative antibiotic group, additional antibiotic doses and earlier antibiotic initiation were associated with lower OC yield. Conclusion In patients with NJSA, preoperative antibiotic exposure resulted in a significant decrease in microbiologic yield of operative cultures as compared to patients in whom antibiotic therapy was held prior to obtaining operative cultures.

  • Background Need for parenteral administration and total duration of antibiotic therapy for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) are debated. We report our PJI management, in which outpatient care is privileged. Methods This was a retrospective multicentre cohort study of PJI managed from January 2017 to Jun 2021. Microbial diagnosis was based on surgical samples. Surgical procedures and antibiotic treatments were reported. Chronic PJI was defined by a course >1 month. Oral antibiotic therapy (OAT) was defined by exclusive use of oral antibiotics or by ≤3 days of parenteral treatments. Management failure was defined by clinical and/or microbial relapse of PJI over 24 months after surgical treatment. Results One hundred and seventy-two patients from 13 institutions were included: 103 were male (60%) and mean age was (±SD): 73 ± 12 years. Sites for PJI were mainly hip (50%) and knee (35%), being chronic infections in 70 cases (41%). The main bacterial genus in monomicrobial infections was Staphylococcus spp. (60%). We recorded 41 (24%) implant exchanges. An OAT was prescribed in 76 cases (44%), and the median (range) course for parenteral route was 6 days (4–180) for 96 cases. Median (range) duration of antimicrobials was 42 days (21–180). Management failure was observed in 7/76 (9.2%) cases treated with OAT and 15/96 (15.6%) treated with prolonged parenteral therapy. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for failure were a knee PJI [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 3.27 (1.27–8.40)] and a polymicrobial infection [4.09 (1.46–11.49)]. Conclusions OAT for 6 weeks for PJI was associated with a low rate of management failure.

  • Aims A higher failure rate has been reported in haematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) compared to non-haematogenous PJI. The reason for this difference is unknown. We investigated the outcome of haematogenous and non-haematogenous PJI to analyze the risk factors for failure in both groups of patients. Methods Episodes of knee or hip PJI (defined by the European Bone and Joint Infection Society criteria) treated at our institution between January 2015 and October 2020 were included in a retrospective PJI cohort. Episodes with a follow-up of > one year were stratified by route of infection into haematogenous and non-haematogenous PJI. Probability of failure-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared between groups using log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis was applied to assess risk factors for failure. Results A total of 305 PJI episodes (174 hips, 131 knees) were allocated to the haematogenous (n = 146) or the non-haematogenous group (n = 159). Among monomicrobial infections, Staphylococcus aureus was the dominant pathogen in haematogenous PJI (76/140, 54%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci in non-haematogenous PJI (57/133, 43%). In both groups, multi-stage exchange (n = 55 (38%) in haematogenous and n = 73 (46%) in non-haematogenous PJI) and prosthesis retention (n = 70 (48%) in haematogenous and n = 48 (30%) in non-haematogenous PJI) were the most common surgical strategies. Median duration of antimicrobial treatment was 13.5 weeks (range, 0.5 to 218 weeks) and similar in both groups. After six years of follow-up, the probability of failure-free survival was significantly lower in haematogenous compared to non-haematogenous PJI (55% vs 74%; p = 0.021). Infection-related mortality was significantly higher in haematogenous than non-haematogenous PJI (7% vs 0% episodes; p = 0.001). Pathogenesis of failure was similar in both groups. Retention of the prosthesis was the only independent risk factor for failure in multivariate analysis in both groups. Conclusion Treatment failure was significantly higher in haematogenous compared to non-haematogenous PJI. Retention of the prosthesis was the only independent risk factor for failure in both groups.

  • Importance Despite the frequency of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and clinical implications of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), knowledge gaps remain concerning the incidence, microbiological study results, and factors associated with these infections. Objectives To identify the incidence rates, organisms isolated from microbiological studies, and patient and surgical factors of PJI occurring early, delayed, and late after primary TKA. Design, Setting, and Participants This cohort study obtained data from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse on patients who underwent elective primary TKA in the VA system between October 1, 1999, and September 30, 2019, and had at least 1 year of care in the VA prior to TKA. Patients who met these criteria were included in the overall cohort, and patients with linked Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) data composed the VASQIP cohort. Data were analyzed between December 9, 2021, and September 18, 2023. Exposures Primary TKA as well as demographic, clinical, and perioperative factors. Main Outcomes and Measures Incident hospitalization with early, delayed, or late PJI. Incidence rate (events per 10 000 person-months) was measured in 3 postoperative periods: early (≤3 months), delayed (between >3 and ≤12 months), and late (>12 months). Unadjusted Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs of early and delayed PJI compared with late PJI. The frequency of organisms isolated from synovial or operative tissue culture results of PJIs during each postoperative period was identified. A piecewise exponential parametric survival model was used to estimate IRRs with 95% CIs associated with demographic and clinical factors in each postoperative period. Results The 79 367 patients (median (IQR) age of 65 (60-71) years) in the overall cohort who underwent primary TKA included 75 274 males (94.8%). A total of 1599 PJIs (2.0%) were identified. The incidence rate of PJI was higher in the early (26.8 [95% CI, 24.8-29.0] events per 10 000 person-months; IRR, 20.7 [95% CI, 18.5-23.1]) and delayed periods (5.4 [95% CI, 4.9-6.0] events per 10 000 person-months; IRR, 4.2 [95% CI, 3.7-4.8]) vs the late postoperative period (1.3 events per 10 000 person-months). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism isolated overall (489 [33.2%]); however, gram-negative infections were isolated in 15.4% (86) of early PJIs. In multivariable analyses, hepatitis C virus infection, peripheral artery disease, and autoimmune inflammatory arthritis were associated with PJI across all postoperative periods. Diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and obesity (body mass index of ≥30) were not associated factors. Other period-specific factors were identified. Conclusions and Relevance This cohort study found that incidence rates of PJIs were higher in the early and delayed vs late post-TKA period; there were differences in microbiological cultures and factors associated with each postoperative period. These findings have implications for postoperative antibiotic use, stratification of PJI risk according to postoperative time, and PJI risk factor modification.

  • BACKGROUND The addition of vancomycin to beta-lactam prophylaxis in arthroplasty may reduce surgical-site infections; however, the efficacy and safety are unclear. METHODS In this multicenter, double-blind, superiority, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned adult patients without known methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization who were undergoing arthroplasty to receive 1.5 g of vancomycin or normal saline placebo, in addition to cefazolin prophylaxis. The primary outcome was surgical-site infection within 90 days after surgery. RESULTS A total of 4239 patients underwent randomization. Among 4113 patients in the modified intention-to-treat population (2233 undergoing knee arthroplasty, 1850 undergoing hip arthroplasty, and 30 undergoing shoulder arthroplasty), surgical-site infections occurred in 91 of 2044 patients (4.5%) in the vancomycin group and in 72 of 2069 patients (3.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.73; P=0.11). Among patients undergoing knee arthroplasty, surgical-site infections occurred in 63 of 1109 patients (5.7%) in the vancomyin group and in 42 of 1124 patients (3.7%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.23). Among patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, surgical-site infections occurred in 28 of 920 patients (3.0%) in the vancomyin group and in 29 of 930 patients (3.1%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.63). Adverse events occurred in 35 of 2010 patients (1.7%) in the vancomycin group and in 35 of 2030 patients (1.7%) in the placebo group, including hypersensitivity reactions in 24 of 2010 patients (1.2%) and 11 of 2030 patients (0.5%), respectively (relative risk, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.08 to 4.49), and acute kidney injury in 42 of 2010 patients (2.1%) and 74 of 2030 patients (3.6%), respectively (relative risk, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.83). CONCLUSIONS The addition of vancomycin to cefazolin prophylaxis was not superior to placebo for the prevention of surgical-site infections in arthroplasty among patients without known MRSA colonization. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12618000642280. opens in new tab.)

  • The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) has published evidence-based guidelines on the management and prevention of diabetes-related foot diseases since 1999. The present guideline is an update of the 2019 IWGDF guideline on the diagnosis and management of foot infections in persons with diabetes mellitus. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was used for the development of this guideline. This was structured around identifying clinically relevant questions in the P(A)ICO format, determining patient-important outcomes, systematically reviewing the evidence, assessing the certainty of the evidence, and finally moving from evidence to the recommendation. This guideline was developed for healthcare professionals involved in diabetes-related foot care to inform clinical care around patient-important outcomes. Two systematic reviews from 2019 were updated to inform this guideline, and a total of 149 studies (62 new) meeting inclusion criteria were identified from the updated search and incorporated in this guideline. Updated recommendations are derived from these systematic reviews, and best practice statements made where evidence was not available. Evidence was weighed in light of benefits and harms to arrive at a recommendation. The certainty of the evidence for some recommendations was modified in this update with a more refined application of the GRADE framework centred around patient important outcomes. This is highlighted in the rationale section of this update. A note is also made where the newly identified evidence did not alter the strength or certainty of evidence for previous recommendations. The recommendations presented here continue to cover various aspects of diagnosing soft tissue and bone infections, including the classification scheme for diagnosing infection and its severity. Guidance on how to collect microbiological samples, and how to process them to identify causative pathogens, is also outlined. Finally, we present the approach to treating foot infections in persons with diabetes, including selecting appropriate empiric and definitive antimicrobial therapy for soft tissue and bone infections; when and how to approach surgical treatment; and which adjunctive treatments may or may not affect the infectious outcomes of diabetes-related foot problems. We believe that following these recommendations will help healthcare professionals provide better care for persons with diabetes and foot infections, prevent the number of foot and limb amputations, and reduce the patient and healthcare burden of diabetes-related foot disease.

  • Background Previous studies demonstrated the efficacy of a rifampicin-based regimen in the treatment of acute staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) treated with surgical debridement. However, evidence is lacking to support the use of rifampicin in cases where the implant is exchanged during revision. Methods We included all consecutive cases of staphylococcal PJIs treated from January 2013 to December 2018 with revision surgery in this international, retrospective, multicenter observational cohort study. PJI was defined according to the European Bone and Joint Infection Society diagnostic criteria. A relapse or reinfection during follow-up, the need for antibiotic suppressive therapy, the need for implant removal, and PJI-related death were defined as clinical failure. Cases without reimplantation or with follow-up <12 months were excluded. Results A total of 375 cases were included in the final analysis, including 124 1-stage exchanges (33.1%) and 251 2-stage exchanges (66.9%). Of those, 101 cases failed (26.9%). There was no statistically significant difference in failure of patients receiving rifampicin (22.5%, 42/187) and those not receiving rifampicin (31.4%, 59/188; P = .051). A subanalysis of chronic PJIs treated by 2-stage exchange arthroplasty demonstrated a lower failure rate in cases treated with rifampicin (15%) compared with the no-rifampicin group (35.5%; P = .005). In this subgroup, the use of rifampicin and an antibiotic holiday of >2 weeks were independent predictors of clinical success (odds ratio [OR], 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15–0.88; and OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04–0.90; respectively). Conclusions Combination treatment with rifampicin increases treatment success in patients with chronic staphylococcal PJI treated with 2-stage exchange arthroplasty.

  • Background Hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVOM) is an incompletely understood complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Methods Eligible SAB patients with and without HVOM were prospectively enrolled from 1995 through 2019 at Duke University Health System. HVOM was diagnosed either radiographically or microbiologically. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical and microbial factors associated with HVOM risk. All bloodstream S. aureus isolates were genotyped using spa typing. Results Of 3165 cases of SAB, 127 (4.0%) developed HVOM. Patients who experienced HVOM were more likely to have community-acquired SAB (30.7% vs 16.7%, P &lt; .001), have a longer time to diagnosis of SAB (median, 5 days; interquartile range [IQR], 2–10.5 vs median, 2 days; IQR, 0–4; P &lt; .001), and to exhibit persistent bacteremia (48.8% vs 20.6%, P &lt; .001). A significant number of HVOM patients developed infective endocarditis (26% vs 15.2%, P = .002). Overall, 26.2% (n = 33) of SAB patients with HVOM underwent surgical intervention. Methicillin resistance (46.6% vs 41.7%, P = .318) and bacterial genotype were not associated with the development of HVOM. At the 12-month follow-up, 22% of patients with HVOM had died. Of the surviving patients, 20.4% remained on antibiotic therapy, and 29.6% had recurrence of either HVOM or SAB. Conclusions Among patients with SAB, HVOM risk was associated with clinical factors and not bacterial genotype. Despite being a rare complication of SAB, patients with HVOM had high all-cause mortality rates and healthcare resource requirements up to 1 year after their HVOM diagnosis. Close clinical monitoring is indicated in this vulnerable population.

  • Background Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with high risk of treatment failure and increased morbidity. The role of rifampin-based therapy for the treatment of this condition is controversial. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to explore the efficacy and safety of rifampin-based therapy for the treatment of S. aureus NVO. Methods We searched Cochrane, Embase, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for studies published up to May 2023, focusing on adults with NVO treated with or without rifampin containing regimens. A random-effects model meta-analysis estimated relative risks (RR) and risk difference (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Thirteen studies (two RCTs and 11 comparative cohort studies), comprising 244 patients with S. aureus NVO who received rifampin and 435 who did not were analyzed. Meta-analysis showed that rifampin-based regimens were associated with lower risk of clinical failure (RD -14%; 95% CI: -19%, -8%; P &lt; 0.001; I2 = 0%; RR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.92, P = 0.02, I2 = 21%). Only one study reported on adverse events. All studies had a high or uncertain risk of bias, and the certainty of evidence was rated as very low. Conclusion Adjunctive rifampin therapy might be associated with lower risk of S. aureus NVO treatment failure, however, the low certainty of evidence precludes drawing definitive conclusions that would alter clinical practice. A randomized trial is necessary to corroborate these findings.

  • Introduction: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the existing published data on the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (TB) arthritis involving native joints in adults aged 18 years and older. Methods: This study was performed in accordance with the guidelines provided in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Results: The systematic review of the literature yielded 20 data sources involving 573 patients from nine countries. There was considerable variation amongst the studies in terms of the approach to diagnosis and management. The diagnosis was mostly made by microbiological tissue culture. Medical management involved a median of 12 months of anti-tubercular treatment (interquartile range, IQR, of 8–16; range of 4–18 months). The duration of preoperative treatment ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Surgery was performed on 87 % of patients and varied from arthroscopic debridement to complete synovectomies combined with total joint arthroplasty. The mean follow-up time of all studies was 26 months (range of 3–112 months). Recurrence rates were reported in most studies, with an overall average recurrence rate of approximately 7.4 % (35 of 475 cases). Conclusions: The current literature on TB arthritis highlights the need for the establishment of standardized guidelines for the confirmation of the diagnosis. Further research is needed to define the optimal approach to medical and surgical treatment. The role of early debridement in active TB arthritis needs to be explored further. Specifically, comparative studies are required to address questions around the use of medical treatment alone vs. in combination with surgical intervention.

  • Abstract The optimal treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains uncertain. Patients undergoing debridement and implant retention (DAIR) receive extended antimicrobial treatment, and some experts leave patients at perceived highest risk of relapse on suppressive antibiotic therapy (SAT). In this narrative review, we synthesize the literature concerning the role of SAT to prevent treatment failure following DAIR, attempting to answer three key questions: 1) What factors identify patients at highest risk for treatment failure after DAIR (i.e. patients with the greatest potential to benefit from SAT)? 2) Does SAT reduce the rate of treatment failure after DAIR? And 3) What are the rates of treatment failure and adverse events necessitating treatment discontinuation in patients receiving SAT? We conclude by proposing risk-benefit stratification criteria to guide use of SAT after DAIR for PJI, informed by the limited available literature.

  • Study Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Objective. To determine a pooled incidence rate for deep surgical site infection (SSI) and compare available evidence for deep SSI management among instrumented spinal fusions. Summary of Background Data. Deep SSI is a common complication of instrumented spinal surgery associated with patient morbidity, poorer long-term outcomes, and higher health care costs. Materials and Methods. We systematically searched Medline and Embase and included studies with an adult patient population undergoing posterior instrumented spinal fusion of the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral spine, with a reported outcome of deep SSI. The primary outcome was the incidence of deep SSI. Secondary outcomes included persistent deep SSI after initial debridement, mean number of debridements, and microbiology. The subsequent meta-analysis combined outcomes for surgical site infection using a random-effects model and quantified heterogeneity using the χ 2 test and the I2 statistic. In addition, a qualitative analysis of management strategies was reported. Results. Of 9087 potentially eligible studies, we included 54 studies (37 comparative and 17 noncomparative). The pooled SSI incidence rate was 1.5% (95% CI, 1.1%–1.9%) based on 209,347 index procedures. Up to 25% of patients (95% CI, 16.8%–35.3%), had a persistent infection. These patients require an average of 1.4 (range: 0.8–1.9) additional debridements. Infecting organisms were commonly gram-positive, and among them, staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent (46%). Qualitative analysis suggests implant retention, especially for early deep SSI management. Evidence was limited for other management strategies. Conclusions. The pooled incidence rate of deep SSI post-thoracolumbar spinal surgery is 1.5%. The rate of recurrence and repeat debridement is at least 12%, up to 25%. Persistent infection is a significant risk, highlighting the need for standardized treatment protocols. Our review further demonstrates heterogeneity in management strategies. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to develop better evidence around deep SSI incidence and management in the instrumented thoracolumbar adult spinal fusion population.

  • Background Cutibacterium acnes can cause spinal implant infections. However, little is known about the optimal medical management and outcomes of C. acnes spinal implant infections (CSII). Our study aims to describe the management of patients with CSII and evaluate the clinical outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 18 years or older who underwent spinal fusion surgery with instrumentation between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2020, and whose intraoperative cultures were positive for C. acnes. The primary outcome was treatment failure based on subsequent recurrence, infection with another organism, or unplanned surgery secondary to infection. Results There were 55 patients with a median follow-up (interquartile range) of 2 (1.2–2.0) years. Overall, there were 6 treatment failures over 85.8 total person-years, for an annual rate of 7.0% (95% CI, 2.6%–15.2%). Systemic antibiotic treatment was given to 74.5% (n = 41) of patients for a median duration of 352 days. In the subgroup treated with systemic antibiotics, there were 4 treatment failures (annual rate, 6.3%; 95% CI, 1.7%–16.2%), all of which occurred while on antibiotic therapy. Two failures occurred in the subgroup without antibiotic treatment (annual rate, 8.8%; 95% CI, 1.1%–31.8%). Conclusions Our study found that the estimated annual treatment failure rate was slightly higher among patients who did not receive antibiotics. Of the 6 failures observed, 4 had recurrence of C. acnes either on initial or subsequent treatment failures. More studies are warranted to determine the optimal duration of therapy for CSII.

  • Over the last several decades, periprosthetic joint infection has been increasing in incidence and is occurring in more complex patients. While there have been advances in both surgical and medical treatment strategies, there remain important gaps in our understanding. Here, we share our current approaches to the diagnosis and management of periprosthetic joint infection, focusing on frequent clinical challenges and collaborative interdisciplinary care.

  • The aim of this investigation was to compare risk of infection in both cemented and uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) as well as in total hip arthroplasty (THA) following femoral neck fracture. Methods Data collection was performed using the German Arthroplasty Registry (EPRD). In HA and THA following femoral neck fracture, fixation method was divided into cemented and uncemented prostheses and paired according to age, sex, BMI, and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index using Mahalanobis distance matching. Results Overall in 13,612 cases of intracapsular femoral neck fracture, 9,110 (66.9%) HAs and 4,502 (33.1%) THAs were analyzed. Infection rate in HA was significantly reduced in cases with use of antibiotic-loaded cement compared with uncemented fixated prosthesis (p = 0.013). In patients with THA no statistical difference between cemented and uncemented prosthesis was registered, however after one year 2.4% of infections were detected in uncemented and 2.1% in cemented THA. In the subpopulation of HA after one year, 1.9% of infections were registered in cemented and 2.8% in uncemented HA. BMI (p = 0.001) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (p < 0.003) were identified as risk factors of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), while in THA cemented prosthesis also demonstrated an increased risk within the first 30 days (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.73; p = 0.010). Conclusion The rate of infection after intracapsular femoral neck fracture was statistically significantly reduced in patients treated by antibiotic-loaded cemented HA. Particularly for patients with multiple risk factors for the development of a PJI, the usage of antibiotic-loaded bone cement seems to be a reasonable procedure for prevention of infection. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res  2023;12(5):331–338.

  • Introduction Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a destructive complication of knee replacement surgery (KR). In two-stage revision a spacer is required to maintain limb length and alignment and provide a stable limb on which to mobilise. Spacers may be articulating or static with the gold standard spacer yet to be defined. The aims of this scoping review were to summarise the types of static spacer used to treat PJI after KR, their indications for use and early complication rates. Methods We conducted a scoping review based on the Joanna Briggs Institute’s “JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis” Scoping review reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched from 2005 to 2022 for studies on the use of static spacers for PJI after KR. Results 41 studies (1230 patients/knees) were identified describing 42 static spacer constructs. Twenty-three (23/42 [54.2%]) incorporated cement augmented with metalwork, while nineteen (19/42, [45.9%]) were made of cement alone. Spacers were most frequently anchored in the diaphysis (22/42, [53.3%]), particularly in the setting of extensive bone loss (mean AORI Type = F3/T3; 11/15 studies 78.3% diaphyseal anchoring). 7.1% (79 of 1117 knees) of static spacers had a complication requiring further surgery prior to planned second stage with the most common complication being infection (86.1%). Conclusions This study has summarised the large variety in static spacer constructs used for staged revision KR for PJI. Static spacers were associated with a high risk of complications and further work in this area is required to improve the quality of care in this vulnerable group.

  • Background: There are currently no recommendations to direct the optimal diagnosis and treatment of fungal osteoarticular infections, including prosthetic joint infections and osteomyelitis. Active agents (fluconazole; amphotericin B) are regularly applied per os or intravenously. Other drugs such as voriconazole are used less frequently, especially locally. Voriconazole is less toxic and has promising results. Local antifungal medication during primary surgical treatment has been investigated by implanting an impregnated PMMA cement spacer using intra-articular powder or by daily intra-articular lavage. The admixed dosages are rarely based on characteristic values and microbiological and mechanical data. The purpose of this in vitro study is to investigate the mechanical stability and efficacy of antifungal-admixed PMMA with admixed voriconazole at low and high concentrations. Methods: Mechanical properties (ISO 5833 and DIN 53435) as well as efficacy with inhibition zone tests with two Candida spp. were investigated. We tested three separate cement bodies at each measuring time (n = 3) Results: Mixing high dosages of voriconazole causes white specks on inhomogeneous cement surfaces. ISO compression, ISO bending, and DIN impact were significantly reduced, and ISO bending modulus increased. There was a high efficacy against C. albicans with low and high voriconazole concentrations. Against C. glabrata, a high concentration of voriconazole was significantly more efficient than a dose at a low concentration. Conclusions: Mixing voriconazole powder with PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate) powder homogeneously is not easy because of the high amount of dry voriconazole in the powder formulation. Adding voriconazole (a powder for infusion solutions) has a high impact on its mechanical properties. Efficacy is already good at low concentrations.

Last update from database: 6/5/24, 7:54 AM (UTC)